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  • The Principles Respecting the Government of Canada’s Relationship with Indigenous Peoples (Ten Principles) is a document developed unilaterally by the federal government that is meant to inform the law and policy review and the Rights Framework.

  • Principle 4: Motions towards “cooperative federalism” and suggests that Indigenous peoples are foundational to Canada’s constitutional framework.

  • Principle 6: States the Crown will “consult and cooperate in good faith with the aim of securing their free, prior and informed consent.” Aiming to secure consent amounts to little more than consultation.

  • Principle 7: States that “any infringement of Aboriginal or treaty rights requires justification in accordance with the highest standards established by the Canadian courts”. Regardless of how high these standards are, Canada is clear that infringement can and still will happen, as it already does, even in the likely face of First Nation community opposition.